Forcing as a computational process

[bibtex key=”HamkinsMillerWilliams:Forcing-as-a-computational-process”]

Abstract. We investigate how set-theoretic forcing can be seen as a computational process on the models of set theory. Given an oracle for information about a model of set theory $\langle M,\in^M\rangle$, we explain senses in which one may compute $M$-generic filters $G\subseteq\mathbb{P}\in M$ and the corresponding forcing extensions $M[G]$. Specifically, from the atomic diagram one may compute $G$, from the $\Delta_0$-diagram one may compute $M[G]$ and its $\Delta_0$-diagram, and from the elementary diagram one may compute the elementary diagram of $M[G]$. We also examine the information necessary to make the process functorial, and conclude that in the general case, no such computational process will be functorial. For any such process, it will always be possible to have different isomorphic presentations of a model of set theory $M$ that lead to different non-isomorphic forcing extensions $M[G]$. Indeed, there is no Borel function providing generic filters that is functorial in this sense.

The hierarchy of equivalence relations on the natural numbers under computable reducibility

[bibtex key=CoskeyHamkinsMiller2012:HierarchyOfEquivalenceRelationsOnN]

We define and elaborate upon the notion of computable reducibility between equivalence relations on the natural numbers, providing a natural computable analogue of Borel reducibility, and investigate the hierarchy to which it gives rise. The theory appears well suited for an analysis of equivalence relations on classes of c.e. structures, a rich context with many natural examples, such as the isomorphism relation on c.e. graphs or on computably presented groups. In this regard, our exposition extends earlier work in the literature concerning the classification of computable structures. An abundance of open questions remain.

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Post's problem for ordinal register machines: an explicit approach

[bibtex key=HamkinsMiller2009:PostsProblemForORMsExplicitApproach]

We provide a positive solution for Post’s Problem for ordinal register machines, and also prove that these machines and ordinal Turing machines compute precisely the same partial functions on ordinals. To do so, we construct ordinal register machine programs which compute the necessary functions. In addition, we show that any set of ordinals solving Post’s Problem must be unbounded in the writable ordinals.

Infinite time computable model theory

[bibtex key=HamkinsMillerSeaboldWarner2007:InfiniteTimeComputableModelTheory]

We introduce infinite time computable model theory, the computable model theory arising with infinite time Turing machines,  which provide infinitary notions of computability for structures built on the reals  $\mathbb{R}$. Much of the finite time theory generalizes to the infinite time context, but several fundamental questions, including the infinite time  computable analogue of the Completeness Theorem, turn out to be  independent of ZFC.

The complexity of quickly decidable ORM-decidable sets

[bibtex key=HamkinsLinetskyMiller2007:ComplexityOfQuicklyDecidableORMSets]

The Ordinal Register Machine (ORM) is one of several different machine models for infinitary computability. We classify, by complexity, the sets that can be decided quickly by ORMs. In particular, we show that the arithmetical sets are exactly those sets that can be decided by ORMs in times uniformly less than $\omega^\omega$. Further, we show that the hyperarithmetical sets are exactly those sets that can be decided by an ORM in time uniformly less than $\omega_1^{CK}$.

Post's Problem for Ordinal Register Machines

[bibtex key=HamkinsMiller2007:PostsProblemForORMs]

We study Post’s Problem for ordinal register machines, showing that its general solution is positive, but that any set of ordinals solving it must be unbounded in the writable ordinals. This mirrors earlier results for infinite-time Turing machines, and also provides insight into the different methods required for register machines and Turing machines in infinite time.