# Plenitudinous Primes!

A proof of the infinitude of primes, in meter.

Let’s prove the primes’ infinitude
they do exist in multitude

of quite astounding magnitude
we count the primes in plenitude!

‘Twas proved by Euclid way back when
in Elements he argued then

He proved it with exactitude
in his Book IX he did conclude

for any given finite list
there will be primes the list has missed

to prove this gem let number N
be when you multiply them then

multiply the list for fun,

If into N we shall divide
the listed primes seen in that guide

remainder one each leaves behind
so none as factors could we find

but every number has some prime factor
with our N take such an actor

since it can’t be on the list
we thus deduce more primes exist

No finite list can be complete
and so the claim is in retreat

By iterating this construction
primes do flow in vast deduction

as many as we’d like to see
so infinite the primes must be

Thus proved the primes’ infinitude
in quite enormous multitude

of arb’trarly great magnitude
we count the primes in plenitude!

‘Twas known by Euclid way back then
he proved it in the Elements when

in modern times we know some more
math’s never done, there’s new folklore:

and ErdΕs said it once again:
there’s always a prime between n and 2n.

We proved the primes’ infinitude
they do exist in multitude

of inconceiv’ble magnitude
we count the primes in plentitude!

The primes are plenitudinous
they’re truly multitudinous!

Musical video production of Plenitudinous Primes by the supremely talented Hannah Hoffman!

# Ode to Hippasus

I was so glad to be involved with this project of Hannah Hoffman. She had inquired on Twitter whether mathematicians could provide a proof of the irrationality of root two that rhymes. I set off immediately, of course, to answer the challenge. My wife Barbara Gail Montero and our daughter Hypatia and I spent a day thinking, writing, revising, rewriting, rethinking, rewriting, and eventually we had a set lyrics providing the proof, in rhyme and meter. We had wanted specifically to highlight not only the logic of the proof, but also to tell the fateful story of Hippasus, credited with the discovery.

Hannah proceeded to create the amazing musical version:

The diagonal of a square is incommensurable with its side
an astounding fact the Pythagoreans did hide

but Hippasus rebelled and spoke the truth
making his point with irrefutable proof

it’s absurd to suppose that the root of two
is rational, namely, p over q

square both sides and you will see
that twice q squared is the square of p

since p squared is even, then p is as well
now, if p as 2k you alternately spell

2q squared will to 4k squared equate
revealing, when halved, q’s even fate

thus, root two as fraction, p over q
must have numerator and denomerator with factors of two

to lowest terms, therefore, it can’t be reduced
root two is irrational, Hippasus deduced

as retribution for revealing this irrationality
Hippasus, it is said, was drowned in the sea

but his proof live on for the whole world to admire
a truth of elegance that will ever inspire.